The Raven

Eerste publicatie: 29 januari 1845 (New York Evening Mirror)

Vertalingen en bewerkingen:
2019: De raaf (The Raven. Louter duisternis/Darkness there and nothing more, Stichting Spleen)
2015: De Raaf (14 thrillers uit de oude doos, Calbona)
2014: The Raven / De Raaf (The Raven Parodieën, Jaap van den Born)
2014: The Raven (Nol van der Linden, De IJdoornpers)
2010: De raaf (De raaf, Lou Reed, rockopera)
2008: De Raaf (500 gedichten die iedereen gelezen moet hebben, Meulenhoff, 1e druk)
2005: De raaf (A Thing of Beauty. De bekendste gedichten uit de wereldliteratuur, Menno Wigman en Rob Schouten)
2000: The raven / A poem by Edgar Allan Poe (Boekdrukkerij Polka)
1999: De raaf (De mooiste van altijd. 40 eeuwen wereldpoëzie in 300 gedichten samengebracht, Lannoo│Atlas)
1994: De raaf (De Tweede Ronde – tijdschrift voor literatuur, 15e jaargang, nr. 2)
1993: De raaf (Edgar Allan Poe, Passatempo mini-biografie, August Hans den Boef)
1984: The Raven / De Raven (D.A. Tamminga, Friese Pers Boekerij)
1983: The Raven (Dick Dooijes, Stichting De Roos)
1983: The Raven / De raaf (Hoe en waarom Edgar Allan Poe The Raven schreef, Bob den Uyl)
1982: De raaf (Aan een droom vol weelde ontstegen. Poëzie uit de Romantiek 1750-1850, Gerrit Komrij)
1982: De raaf (De Tweede Ronde – tijdschrift voor literatuur, 3e jaargang, nr. 4)
1982: De raaf (Creepy Special – Edgar Allan Poe, Semic, stripboek)
1980: De raaf (Van Edgar Allan Poe tot Roald Dahl, Publiboek)
1949: De Raven (De Tsjerne nr. 10, 4e jaargang, Fries tijdschrift)
1948: De raaf (Handpalmreeks nr. 4, A.W. Bruna & Zoon)
1944: The Raven (The City in the Sea and other Poems, The Busy Bee / De Bezige Bij)
1944: De Raaf (’t Spuigat, tijdschrift in eigen beheer)
1935: De Raaf (De Gids, jaargang 99, nr. 4)
1915: De Raaf (Nieuwsblad van het Noorden. Dagblad voor de Noordelijke Provinciën)
1903: De Raaf (Oud en Nieuw. Grepen en Groepen, Gerrit Berend Kuitert)
1899: De Raaf (pamflet, Gerrit Berend Kuitert)
1897: De Raaf (Een reiziger in vroolijkheid, Van Holkema & Warendorf)
1887: De Raaf (De Nederlandsche Spectator, jaargang 32, nr. 4)
1872: De Raaf (Poëtische werken vol. XIII: Mengel-poëzy vol V, Jacob van Lennep)
1860: De raaf (Holland. Almanak voor 1861, Jacob van Lennep / Gebroeders Kraay)

2016: De Raaf (Authors Republic, Julie VW)

– M.L Huizenga, een medewerker van het illegaal literair blad ’t Spuigat (1944), zou eveneens ‘The Raven’ hebben vertaald. Waarschijnlijk werd deze vertaling nooit gepubliceerd. Ze werd door Gerard den Brabander verdonkeremaand omdat die meende dat zijn eigen vertaling aanzienlijk beter was.
– Leo van der Sterren schreef in De Parelduiker (2006), jaargang 11, nr. 1, een interessant stuk over zijn visie op ‘Hoe en waarom Edgar Allan Poe The Raven’ schreef van Bob den Uyl.
– Jean-Paul Colin schreef het met ‘The Raven’-citaten aangevulde verhaal Nimmermeer dat is opgenomen in de verhalenbundel ‘Meliefje, meliefje, wat wil je nog meer’ (2014).
– Petrus Hoosemans benutte het schema van ‘The Raven’ om een parodie te schrijven over Gerard van ’t Reve. Van het nogal schaarse boekje ‘G. Reve. Een herinnering’ (1979) werden 300 exemplaren gedrukt.
– Van toneelschrijver Jibbe Willems verscheen in 2012 een moderne vertaling en bewerking van ‘The Raven’. Dit was naar aanleiding van de voorstelling The Raven/Een Requiem van Daria Bukvić voor Frascati Producties.

2013: The Raven (regie: James McTeigue)
2007: The Raven (regie: Ulli Lommel)
2004: The Raven (regie: Roger Corman)


Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary,

Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore —

While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping,

As of some one gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door.

“ ’Tis some visiter,” I muttered, “tapping at my chamber door —

Only this and nothing more.”

Ah, distinctly I remember it was in the bleak December;

And each separate dying ember wrought its ghost upon the floor.

Eagerly I wished the morrow; — vainly I had sought to borrow

From my books surcease of sorrow — sorrow for the lost Lenore —

For the rare and radiant maiden whom the angels name Lenore —

Nameless here for evermore.

And the silken, sad, uncertain rustling of each purple curtain

Thrilled me — filled me with fantastic terrors never felt before;

So that now, to still the beating of my heart, I stood repeating

“ ’Tis some visiter entreating entrance at my chamber door —

Some late visiter entreating entrance at my chamber door; —

This it is and nothing more.”

Presently my soul grew stronger; hesitating then no longer,

“Sir,” said I, “or Madam, truly your forgiveness I implore;

But the fact is I was napping, and so gently you came rapping,

And so faintly you came tapping, tapping at my chamber door,

That I scarce was sure I heard you” — here I opened wide the door; ——

Darkness there and nothing more.

Deep into that darkness peering, long I stood there wondering, fearing,

Doubting, dreaming dreams no mortal ever dared to dream before;

But the silence was unbroken, and the stillness gave no token,

And the only word there spoken was the whispered word, “Lenore?”

This I whispered, and an echo murmured back the word, “Lenore!” —

Merely this and nothing more.

Back into the chamber turning, all my soul within me burning,

Soon again I heard a tapping somewhat louder than before.

“Surely,” said I, “surely that is something at my window lattice;

Let me see, then, what thereat is, and this mystery explore —

Let my heart be still a moment and this mystery explore;—

‘Tis the wind and nothing more!”

Open here I flung the shutter, when, with many a flirt and flutter,

In there stepped a stately Raven of the saintly days of yore;

Not the least obeisance made he; not a minute stopped or stayed he;

But, with mien of lord or lady, perched above my chamber door —

Perched upon a bust of Pallas just above my chamber door —

Perched, and sat, and nothing more.

Then this ebony bird beguiling my sad fancy into smiling,

By the grave and stern decorum of the countenance it wore,

“Though thy crest be shorn and shaven, thou,” I said, “art sure no craven,

Ghastly grim and ancient Raven wandering from the Nightly shore —

Tell me what thy lordly name is on the Night’s Plutonian shore!”

Quoth the Raven “Nevermore.”

Much I marvelled this ungainly fowl to hear discourse so plainly,

Though its answer little meaning — little relevancy bore;

For we cannot help agreeing that no living human being

Ever yet was blessed with seeing bird above his chamber door —

Bird or beast upon the sculptured bust above his chamber door,

With such name as “Nevermore.”

But the Raven, sitting lonely on the placid bust, spoke only

That one word, as if his soul in that one word he did outpour.

Nothing farther then he uttered — not a feather then he fluttered —

Till I scarcely more than muttered “Other friends have flown before —

On the morrow he will leave me, as my Hopes have flown before.”

Then the bird said “Nevermore.”

Startled at the stillness broken by reply so aptly spoken,

“Doubtless,” said I, “what it utters is its only stock and store

Caught from some unhappy master whom unmerciful Disaster

Followed fast and followed faster till his songs one burden bore —

Till the dirges of his Hope that melancholy burden bore

Of ‘Never — nevermore’.”

But the Raven still beguiling my sad fancy into smiling,

Straight I wheeled a cushioned seat in front of bird, and bust and door;

Then, upon the velvet sinking, I betook myself to linking

Fancy unto fancy, thinking what this ominous bird of yore —

What this grim, ungainly, ghastly, gaunt, and ominous bird of yore

Meant in croaking “Nevermore.”

This I sat engaged in guessing, but no syllable expressing

To the fowl whose fiery eyes now burned into my bosom’s core;

This and more I sat divining, with my head at ease reclining

On the cushion’s velvet lining that the lamp-light gloated o’er,

But whose velvet-violet lining with the lamp-light gloating o’er,

She shall press, ah, nevermore!

Then, methought, the air grew denser, perfumed from an unseen censer

Swung by seraphim whose foot-falls tinkled on the tufted floor.

“Wretch,” I cried, “thy God hath lent thee — by these angels he hath sent thee

Respite — respite and nepenthe, from thy memories of Lenore;

Quaff, oh quaff this kind nepenthe and forget this lost Lenore!”

Quoth the Raven “Nevermore.”

“Prophet!” said I, “thing of evil! — prophet still, if bird or devil! —

Whether Tempter sent, or whether tempest tossed thee here ashore,

Desolate yet all undaunted, on this desert land enchanted —

On this home by Horror haunted — tell me truly, I implore —

Is there — is there balm in Gilead? — tell me — tell me, I implore!”

Quoth the Raven “Nevermore.”

“Prophet!” said I, “thing of evil! — prophet still, if bird or devil!

By that Heaven that bends above us — by that God we both adore —

Tell this soul with sorrow laden if, within the distant Aidenn,

It shall clasp a sainted maiden whom the angels name Lenore —

Clasp a rare and radiant maiden whom the angels name Lenore.”

Quoth the Raven “Nevermore.”

“Be that word our sign of parting, bird or fiend!” I shrieked, upstarting —

“Get thee back into the tempest and the Night’s Plutonian shore!

Leave no black plume as a token of that lie thy soul hath spoken!

Leave my loneliness unbroken! — quit the bust above my door!

Take thy beak from out my heart, and take thy form from off my door!”

Quoth the Raven “Nevermore.”

And the Raven, never flitting, still is sitting, still is sitting

On the pallid bust of Pallas just above my chamber door;

And his eyes have all the seeming of a demon’s that is dreaming,

And the lamp-light o’er him streaming throws his shadow on the floor;

And my soul from out that shadow that lies floating on the floor

Shall be lifted — nevermore!

The Raven (NL: 2013), James McTeigue

The Raven (NL: 2004), Roger Corman

The Raven (NL: 2007), Ulli Lommel

Vlaamse filmposter De raaf (1963)

Nederlandse filmposter The Raven (2012)

The City in the Sea (ca. 1944), Fred Ingram

De raaf (1974-75), Harry van Kruiningen

The Raven (1983), Dick Dooijes

The Raven (1983), Dick Dooijes

The Raven (1983), Dick Dooijes

De raaf (1948), Jan Roëde

De raaf (1948), Jan Roëde

De raaf (1948), Jan Roëde